You do NOT need to see a doctor.
If you open your eyes under water, this will happen. It won't go away for quite some time, sorry. Rinsing them probably won't help, your eyes are irritated due to over-exposure of chlorine. Next time, I suggest you wear goggles and put in eye drops before and after swimming to protect your eyes. Most people, including myself, don't do eye drops, just goggles. However, some people are more sensitive to chlorine.
It sucks, I know, but it's worth not have your vision all cloudy.
For now, try sleeping. Your eyes will be fine when you wake up.
swimteam for 10+ years.