If your vision is clear with a certain prescription, that is the right prescription for you. Prescriptions change slightly all the time, even during different hours of the day, so a prescription taken by a doctor may not always be perfect. It's likely if you got your prescription redone it would match that of your friends' lenses, so if your glasses aren't working for you seek a new prescription.
To answer the main question, however, wearing the wrong prescription will not damage your eyes in any way unless you are a child. The brains of children are still changing, and can suppress signals from one or both eyes if they feel the eye isn't working properly. This can cause amblyopia, or "lazy eye." Kids should always wear their own glasses, but, again, if you see better with someone elses' glasses, then your own glasses need changing.